This Week in History: April 18-19, 1775

Lexington and Concord

Battles at Lexington and Concord begin the American Revolution

At about 5 a.m., 700 British troops, on a mission to capture Patriot leaders and seize a Patriot arsenal, march into Lexington to find 77 armed minutemen under Captain John Parker waiting for them on the town’s common green. British Major John Pitcairn ordered the outnumbered Patriots to disperse, and after a moment’s hesitation the Americans began to drift off the green. Suddenly, the “shot heard around the world” was fired from an undetermined gun, and a cloud of musket smoke soon covered the green. When the brief Battle of Lexington ended, eight Americans lay dead or dying and 10 others were wounded. Only one British soldier was injured, but the American Revolution had begun.

By 1775, tensions between the American colonies and the British government approached the breaking point, especially in Massachusetts, where Patriot leaders formed a shadow revolutionary government and trained militias to prepare for armed conflict with the British troops occupying Boston. In the spring of 1775, General Thomas Gage, the British governor of Massachusetts, received instructions from England to seize all stores of weapons and gunpowder accessible to the American insurgents. On April 18, he ordered British troops to march against the Patriot arsenal at Concord and capture Patriot leaders Samuel Adams and John Hancock, known to be hiding at Lexington.

The Boston Patriots had been preparing for such a military action by the British for some time, and upon learning of the British plan, Patriots Paul Revere and William Dawes were ordered to set out to rouse the militiamen and warn Adams and Hancock. When the British troops arrived at Lexington, Adams, Hancock, and Revere had already fled to Philadelphia, and a group of militiamen were waiting. The Patriots were routed within minutes, but warfare had begun, leading to calls to arms across the Massachusetts countryside.

When the British troops reached Concord at about 7 a.m., they found themselves encircled by hundreds of armed Patriots. They managed to destroy the military supplies the Americans had collected but were soon advanced against by a gang of minutemen, who inflicted numerous casualties. Lieutenant Colonel Frances Smith, the overall commander of the British force, ordered his men to return to Boston without directly engaging the Americans. As the British retraced their 16-mile journey, their lines were constantly beset by Patriot marksmen firing at them Indian-style from behind trees, rocks, and stone walls. At Lexington, Captain Parker’s militia had its revenge, killing several British soldiers as the Red Coats hastily marched through his town. By the time the British finally reached the safety of Boston, nearly 300 British soldiers had been killed, wounded, or were missing in action. The Patriots suffered fewer than 100 casualties.

The battles of Lexington and Concord were the first battles of the American Revolution, a conflict that would escalate from a colonial uprising into a world war that, seven years later, would give birth to the independent United States of America.

History.com, “The American Revolution Begins”, https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-american-revolution-begins

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This Week in History: April 14, 1828

Noah_Webster_The_Schoolmaster_of_the_Republic

American Dictionary of the English Language is Printed

Webster was born Oct. 16, 1758, in West Hartford, Conn., and educated at Yale University. He served in the American Revolution, studied law, and taught school. In 1783 he published a spelling book, known later as Webster’s Elementary Spelling Book or The Blue-Backed Speller, the first part of his A Grammatical Institute of the English Language. The second part of the Institute, a grammar, was published in 1784, and the third part, a reader, in 1785. One purpose served by the Institute was to differentiate American English from British in terms of spelling, grammar, and pronunciation. A century later it was estimated that more than 60 million copies of the speller had been sold; in revised form it is still in print.

A dedicated member of the Federalist party, Webster issued a pamphlet, Sketches of American Policy (1785), in which he recommended adoption of the proposed U.S. Constitution. Settling briefly in New York City in 1793, he founded a daily newspaper, The Minerva (later The Commercial Advertiser), and a semiweekly, The Herald (later The Spectator), both in support of the Federalist party. By 1803 he had settled in New Haven, Conn., and left journalism. During this period he wrote A Brief History of Epidemic and Pestilential Diseases (2 vol., 1799); several works on politics, economics, and physical science; and his first small lexicographical work, A Compendious Dictionary of the English Language (1806).

From 1812 to 1822 Webster lived in Amherst, Mass., where he helped to found Amherst College. In 1825, having devoted more than 40 years to the study of the English language and having traveled in both England and France, Webster returned to New Haven to complete his monumental American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). It contained 12,000 more words and about 40,000 more definitions than any earlier dictionary of the English language. Webster died May 28, 1843, in New Haven.

Webster’s importance does not rest only on the size of his work. He was the first authority to emphasize American rather than British usage and the first to list senses in the chronological order in which they made their appearance in the language. His etymologies were not entirely accurate by modern standards, but his precise definitions are models of lexical style. Also, by the inclusion of thousands of technical and scientific terms, Webster laid the groundwork for the modern comprehensive, rather than purely literary, dictionary.

An enlarged edition of Webster’s dictionary was issued in 1840; it has appeared in several later revisions. Webster’s Third New International Dictionary (1961; rev. 1981) and an abridgement, Webster’s Tenth New Collegiate Dictionary, are the latest of these revisions.

Webster, Noah. (2017). Funk & Wagnall’s New World Encyclopedia, 1p. 1.

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April is Child Abuse Awareness Month

Lexington Couth pinwheel garden

In support of Child Abuse Awareness month, the Clerk of Court’s office, Solicitor’s office, Lexington County Sheriff’s Department, along with several other agencies, have partnered with the Dickerson Center to increase awareness in Lexington County. On April 6th, we will be having our “Wear Blue” day and participating with the Pinwheel Garden. We are requesting that all employees wear blue in recognition of Child Abuse Awareness.  We would appreciate your participation in making this a successful year for “Lexington County United Against Child Abuse.”

To learn more about the signs of child abuse…

This Week in History: April 5, 1827

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Birth of Joseph Lister, Father of Antiseptic Surgery

Born in Upton, Essex, on April 5, 1827, Joseph Lister was the son of a wealthy wine merchant who developed an achromatic lens for the microscope. As a student Lister did microscopic research, and his acceptance of Louis Pasteur’s work later may be related to his familiarity with the process of fermentation since childhood. After graduating from the University of London in 1852, Lister began a surgical career in Edinburgh; in 1860 he became professor of surgery at the Royal Infirmary in Glasgow.

With the introduction of anesthesia in the 1840s operations had become more frequent, but many patients died from infection following surgery. Inflammation and suppuration (pus formation) occurred in almost all accidental wounds and after surgery, and more so when patients were treated at the hospital rather than at home by a visiting surgeon. The reason was unknown, but it was believed to be something in the air. As a result, wounds were heavily dressed or irrigated with water to keep the air out; operations were a last resort. The body’s cavities (head, chest, or abdomen) were practically never opened; injured limbs were usually amputated.

Lister’s research centered on the microscopic changes in tissue that result in inflammation. When he read Pasteur’s work on germs in 1864, Lister immediately applied Pasteur’s thinking to the problem he was investigating. He concluded that inflammation was the result of germs entering and developing in the wound. Since Pasteur’s sterilization by heat could not be applied to the living organism, Lister sought a chemical to destroy the germs.

That same year Lister read in the newspaper that the treatment of sewage with crude carbolic acid had led to a reduction of diseases among the people of Carlisle and among the cattle grazing on sewage-treated fields. In 1865 he developed a successful method of applying purified carbolic acid to wounds. The technique of spraying the air in the operating room with carbolic acid was only briefly used, as it was recognized that airborne germs were not of primary importance. Lister perfected the technical details of antisepsis and continued his research. He developed the surgical use of sterile catgut and silk and introduced gauze dressings. Antisepsis became a basic principle for the development of surgery; amputations became infrequent, as did death from infections; and new surgical procedures could be planned and safely executed.

n 1869 Lister returned to Edinburgh, and in 1877 he was appointed professor of surgery at King’s College in London. He won worldwide acclaim and honors, including honorary doctorates, a baronetcy in 1882, and a peerage in 1897. After he retired in 1893 he became foreign secretary of the Royal Society and then its president from 1895 to 1900. He died at Walmer, Kent, on Feb. 10, 1912. Although Lister’s antiseptic method was soon replaced by the use of asepsis, his work represented the first successful application of Pasteur’s theory to surgery and marked the beginning of a new era.

Joseph Lister. (2004). In Encyclopedia of World Biography (2nd ed., Vol. 9, pp. 444-445). Detroit: Gale. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CX3404703913/GVRL?u=lcpls&sid=GVRL&xid=cda23d14

 

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This Week in History: March 29, 1806

Congress Authorizes Survey of Cumberland Road

Cumberland road

Congress authorizes surveying to begin for the construction of the Cumberland Road, which sped the way for thousands of Americans heading west.

Four years earlier, Congress had recognized the importance of building a network of national roads to facilitate western immigration. The 1803 act that admitted Ohio into the Union included a provision setting aside money from the sale of public lands to use in “laying out, opening, and making roads.” By 1806, enough funds had accumulated to begin surveying a proposed national road from Cumberland, Maryland, through the Appalachian Mountains to Wheeling, Virginia, on the Ohio River.

The task of surveying the route for the new national road went to the Army’s Corps of Engineers, setting an important precedent for the military’s involvement in building transportation routes that would be used for non-military purposes. The Corps of Engineers also built the road once construction began in 1811. Progress was slow, and the Corps did not complete the 130-mile road until 1818. Its value, though, became apparent well before it was completed. Stagecoaches, heavy freight wagons, and droves of stock animals soon crowded the route in numbers far surpassing those expected. The Corps even had to maintain and repair older sections of the road before the entire route was completed.

The Cumberland Road proved such a success that Congress agreed to continue extending it westward. By 1850, this National Road, as it came to be called, reached all the way to Indianapolis. By that time, mid-western excitement over the National Road was fading in favor of a fever for canal building. The Cumberland-National Road, however, set the precedent for further government involvement in road building. The resulting network of roads greatly facilitated American expansion into western territory, and parts of the route blazed for the Cumberland Road are still followed to this day by interstate and state highways.

 

History.com, “Congress Authorizes the Survey of Cumberland Road” https://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/congress-authorizes-survey-of-cumberland-road

 

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This Week in History: March 20, 1928

Mister Rogers Is Born

mister rogers

 

“Won’t you be my neighbor?” Fred McFeely Rogers asked television viewers this question for more than three decades on Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood, a children’s show that helped create an entire genre of educational television with a focus on nurturing children’s self-worth. Few series have come close to maintaining the continuity and moral tenor of Rogers’s long-running PBS series. Lacking the commercial development of nearly all the network’s other children series, Rogers’s program maintained an unwavering commitment to education.

Born in Pennsylvania in 1928, Rogers began work in television with variety programs such as The Voice of Firestone (1949–1959) and The Lucky Strike Hit Parade (1950–1959). In November 1953 he moved back to his roots in western Pennsylvania, where he began working at WQED, the nation’s first community-supported public television station. Rogers began experimenting with children’s programming while at WQED, including the award-winning Children’s Corner, which contained the puppets and other details that would later been seen on Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood. During this period, he also began studying child development and became an ordained Presbyterian minister. Each of these sensibilities infused his on-air persona.

After the 1966 release of Fred Rogers‘s MisteRogers Neighborhood, he renamed the program Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood and it was released nationally in 1968. That same year he was appointed chairman of the Forum on Mass Media and Child Development of the White House Conference on Children and Youth. Rogers had become a leading spokesman on American education and, particularly, how the television medium would be used to help develop it. He steered the programming toward a noncommercial format that could be easily coordinated with classroom use. By 1971 he had created Family Communications, Inc., a company dedicated to children and providing educational support to the families and people who care for them.

Until his death in 2003, Rogers resisted the flamboyant staging of some children’s programs for a conservative, unchanging appearance. Each show begins and ends in the living room of his “television house.” At the opening of each show, Mister Rogers invites the television viewer to be his neighbor and to enter his house. Then he hangs up his coat in the closet, slips into his cardigan sweater, and changes into his sneakers. From his living room, Rogers introduces the viewer to a new idea or object that becomes the focus of the show for the day or week. After the brief introduction, Mister Rogers visits other people in his neighborhood or places where everyday things are made—a balloon factory or a crayon factory, for example.

Aside from Mister Rogers’s seemingly intimate conversations with the viewers—his “television neighbors”—the most engaging action of the program centered on the “Neighborhood of Make-Believe,” a puppet kingdom ruled by puppets King Friday XIII and Queen Sara Saturday and inhabited by several other puppets as well as humans. To help children make a distinction between real and pretend, none of the characters in the Neighborhood of Make-Believe ever appear in Mister Rogers’s “real” world. Despite advances in visual technology, the conveyor between the “real” world of Mister Rogers’s living room and the imaginary world of make-believe remained a mechanical trolley.

Black, B. (2013). Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood. In T. Riggs (Ed.), St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 582-584). Detroit: St. James Press. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/CX2735801852/GVRL?u=lcpls&sid=GVRL&xid=9b8d1bb9

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